Bien que structure privée, le LNG publie ses travaux de recherche dans différents types de revues :
- des revues internationales anglo-saxonnes à referee : découvertes majeures, développement méthodologique en chimie
- des revues d'archéologie à comité de lecture : application des analyses aux recherches en archéologie, actes de congrès
- des journaux destinés aux conservateurs et restaurateurs sur des problématiques et des développements méthodologiques précis
- des catalogues d'exposition des musées nationaux
- des revues de vulgarisation destinées aux scientifiques ou au grand public.
Quelques articles phares, l'essentiel des articles étant présentés dans les pages thématiques "publications" :
Prehistoric wine-making at Dikili Tash (Northern Greece): Integrating residue analysis and archaeobotany
N. Garnier, S. M. Valamoti
A new two-step analytical protocol has permitted the reliable structural identification of red wine thanks to the presence of dark grape (tartaric, malic, syringic acids) and fermentation markers (succinic and pyruvic acids) in a smashed, large, coarse jar and a jug excavated inside a Neolithic house destroyed by fire around 4300 BCE at the site of Dikili Tash in northern Greece. This new method, which has also been tested successfully on other vessels, exploits the chemical break-down of the clay and the simultaneous liberation and derivatization of biomarkers. Since aldaric acids are not extracted by a simple solvent extraction, but only when submitted to the second acido-catalyzed extraction, their detection in the second extract indicates organic residues are more deeply impregnated and bound to the clay structure than previously thought. Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry leads to the very sensitive detection (<10 ng/g sherd for tartaric acid, i.e. < 10−6 mL of wine/g sherd) and reliable identification of fermented grape biomarkers. Their identification in a Neolithic jar from Dikili Tash corroborates the finding of pressed grapes consisting of loose pips, skins, and pips still enclosed by skin in association with this jar. Our results demonstrate Neolithic wine-making in the northern Aegean, and provide the earliest solid evidence for the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe. This new method could be more widely used for detecting wine traces in all sorts of archaeological artefacts or structures. It constitutes an essential tool for a better understanding of wine-making and of contexts of consumption in ancient civilizations.
Identifier les traces de vin archéologique : des structures de production aux vases à boire. Un bilan des méthodologies et des apports de l’analyse chimique organiques
Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC–4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine).
Garnier N., Rolando C., Høtje J. M., Tokarski C.
Summary – This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of “in-house” species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer (Δm below 2.5ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as α,β-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.
Characterization of thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation products of polyphenols from modern and archaeological vine derivatives using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
Nicolas Garnier, Pascale Richardin, Véronique Cheynier, Martine Regert
Characterization of archaeological beeswax by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Garnier N., Cren-Olive C., Rolando C., Regert M.